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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 344-352

Management of cerebral vascular spasm in posttraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage using a combination therapy of oral nimodipine and intravenous milrinone: a randomized clinical trial

Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Management, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
MD Heba M Fathi
Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Management, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University 44519, Zagazig
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/roaic.roaic_31_22

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Background Intravenous milrinone has been investigated for management of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); however, its role in vasospasm after traumatic SAH is still under evaluation. Patients and methods A total of 30 patients with cerebral vascular spasm after traumatic SAH were randomly divided into two equal groups. Group H was given nimodipine (60 mg/4 h) orally or via nasogastric tube and then combination of induced hypertension, hypervolemia, and hemodilution (triple-H therapy). Group M was given nimodipine (60 mg/4 h) orally or in the nasogastric tube and then intravenous milrinone bolus of 0.1–0.2 mg/kg followed by intravenous infusion of 0.75–1.25 μg/k/min. The infusion was continued for 72 h before gradual discontinuation at a rate of 0.25 μg/kg/min every 24 h until complete weaning. For refractory cases in both groups, emergency angioplasty was done. Primary outcome was the transcutaneous cerebral regional oxygen saturation 14 days after starting treatment. Secondary outcomes were the Glasgow coma score 14 days after starting treatment, infarction rate, ICU and hospital stays, and modified Rankin scale and Glasgow outcome scale at 3 and 6 months after starting treatment. Results Group M showed significant increase in regional oxygen saturation and Glasgow coma score; decrease in infarction rate, ICU stay, and hospital stay; and improvement in modified Rankin scale and Glasgow outcome scale. Significance was set at P value less than 0.05. Conclusion The combination of oral nimodipine and intravenous milrinone improves the outcome of vasospasm in posttraumatic SAH.

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