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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-13

Pre-emptive analgesia of ultrasound-guided pectoral nerve block II with dexmedetomidine–bupivacaine for controlling chronic pain after modified radical mastectomy

1 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
2 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Ali M Ali Hassn
Lecturer of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2356-9115.184078

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Background The term chronic pain refers to pain in and around the area of surgery lasting beyond 3 months after surgery when all other causes of pain, such as recurrence, have been ruled out. Persistent pain after treatment has a considerable negative influence on quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Patients and methods Sixty female patients were enrolled for ultrasound-guided modified pectoral block. They were randomly assigned into two groups of 30 patients each: group C was administered 30 ml saline, and group BD was administered 30 ml 0.5% bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg. Pectoral block II was performed with ultrasound preoperatively and general anesthesia was induced after 15 min of assessment of the block in both groups. Patients were assessed for acute pain, chronic pain, and patient satisfaction. Results A total of 60 female patients were randomized into two groups: group C (the control group) and group BD (the bupivacaine–dexmedetomidine group). Group BD showed highly significant reduction in intubation heart rate, intubation mean arterial blood pressure, intraoperative heart rate, intraoperative mean arterial blood pressure, and total fentanyl dose (μg) (76.1 ± 5.3 vs. 82.9 ± 4.6, P = 0.00007**; 75.2 ± 2.8 vs.77.5 ± 3.9, P = 0.01*; 76.2 ± 5.3 vs. 88.9 ± 6.3, P = 0.00**; 71.6 ± 8.06 vs.78.2 ± 7.03, P = 0.001**; and 107.76 ± 11.77 vs. 150.83 ± 26.6, P = 0.00**, respectively). Follow-up of patients for 6 months regularly for chronic pain, satisfaction, and need for analgesics revealed significant differences at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months in group C in relation to group BD [1 month, 7 (23.3%) vs. 3 (10%) with P = 0.02*; 3 months, 11 (36.6%) vs. 6 (20%) with P = 0.03*; and 6 months, 16 (53.3%) vs. 8 (26.6%) with P = 0.002*]. Conclusion Reduced visual analogue scale was seen at the first 24 h postoperatively, with significant reduction in total postoperative analgesia and delayed rescue analgesia in the bupivacaine dexmedetomidine group (the BD group) in relation to the control group. This marked reduction in the severity of postoperative pain correlates with reduced chronic pain on follow-up of our patients with patient satisfaction, good sleep, and reduced analgesic need, which improves quality of life.

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