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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 43-49

A comparative study of intrathecal dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as additives to bupivacaine

Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Wafaa Ahmed
Medical Colledge, Alexandria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2356-9115.161328

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Background In recent years, the use of intrathecal adjuvants has gained popularity. The quality of spinal anesthesia has been reported to improve with the addition of opioids and other drugs, but until now there is no single drug with no side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the addition of either dexmedetomidine or fentanyl to intrathecal bupivacaine as regards the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effects, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of either drug. Materials and methods Sixty patients classified in American Society of Anesthesiologists as classes I and II scheduled for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to three groups (20 patients each): group B, group F, and group D. Group B patients received 3 ml (15 mg) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.5 ml of normal saline intrathecally. Group F patients received 3 ml (15 mg) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.5 ml (25 μg) of preservative-free fentanyl intrathecally. Group D patients received 3 ml (15 mg) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.5 ml (5 μg) of diluted, preservative-free dexmedetomidine intrathecally. Results Patients in the dexmedetomidine group (D) had faster sensory and motor onsets compared with those in the fentanyl group (F) and the bupivacaine group (B) (P = 0.000 for both sensory and motor). Patients in group D had significantly longer sensory and motor durations compared with those in groups F and B (P = 0.000). Patients in the dexmedetomidine group (D) did not have significant hemodynamic changes; they had prolonged analgesic effect with less 24 h requirements of analgesics, and they had nonsignificant adverse effects. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine has faster onset compared with fentanyl and bupivacaine when injected intrathecally along with bupivacaine; it prolonged the sensory and motor blocks and was hemodynamically stable, with no significant side effects and with less requirements of postoperative analgesic needs during the first 24h.

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